Yurevichi, Belarus

Rechitsa Uyezd, Minsk Gubernia

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history:imperial_russia

Yurevichi in Imperial Russia

1797-1810

  • 1793: Second partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
  • Yurevichi is a “mestechko of Rechitsa Uezd and, in October 1796, becomes part of the Minsk Gubernia (Province)
  • Pale of Settlement established by Catherine the Great
  • 1809: Surnames for Jews are mandated by the Russian government. Names must be fixed and inheritable so aid in identification for taxation and conscription.

1810s

  • Jews estimated population of 65 in 18111) Including 6 tailors, 2 butchers and 1 shoemaker.
  • 1812: war of 1812. Rechitsa is temporary residence of governor of Minsk. Russian forces concentrated in Recitsa.

1830s

  • Yuravichi was the center of the Yuravichesky parish in Rechitsa district of Minsk province
  • Fiefdom lords: Багумілы Харэвічавай2) and Багуслаў Аскерка3)
  • Jews probably managed on land owner's estate (Ostero??). reference Rechitsa/Bobruisk information
  • Compare life of serfs vs occupations of Jews

1840s

  • Yuravich becomes ancetral land of Askera
  • Town and village grow to 115 homesteads

1850s

1860s

Peasans enthusiastic about emancipation; support tsar during Polish uprisng. Peasants face taxes and opportunity to own their land is disillusion..

  • 3 March4) 1861, Emancipation Manifesto proclaimed the emancipation of the serfs on private estates and of the domestic (household) serfs. Serfs were granted the full rights of free citizens, gaining the rights to marry without having to gain consent, to own property and to own a business. The Manifesto prescribed that peasants would be able to buy the land from the landlords.
  • emancipation manifesto was proclaimed from the Yuravichi church’s ambo. It proclaimed the emancipation of the serfs on private estates and of the household serfs. Vladimir Isaenko describes this event in his book “Yuravichi nad Pripyatiy” : “ The peasants were amazed. They gathered, clamoured and made plans. Free soil is good, but it’s still shared and it’s going to be divided from time to time. Freedom is even better but quit rent remains and new taxes imposed. Nevertheless the peasants write and signed the paper to the Tsar where they promised to serve forever and expressed their gratitude.
  • January 1863 rebellion. See January Uprising. What did the former serfs do?
  • governor-general M.Muravyev suppresses the revolt. Martial law. Seeks to undermine the Catholic church in Yurevichi (because the 1863 uprising was led by young Poles). Cossaks vandalize Cathaloic church.
  • 1864: An Orthodox church takes the place of the catholic one.
  • Ignatii Melej(grandfather of popular Belarussian writer Ivan Melej) was the chairman of council in Yuravichi at that time. He was concerned about education of local inhabitants. Due to his effort a public college for men opened there in 1865.

1870s

rich farmer Bakunenok buys 3950 dessiatinas of Soltan's land; operates horse-powered grain mill. serfs face hardships and low pay.

  • 1872-1874: reconstruction of church into orthodox done by architect S. Ivanov.
  • 1874: Lands of Yuravich offered for sale by landowner Soltan. In 1874 the lands of Yuravichi were set out on sale. Many peasants were dreaming of buying a part of it. D.I.Lucskevich the old resident of Uravichi describes that event in the book “Pamyat.Kalinkovicheskiy rayon” (Minsk., Yrojai, 1999): “When the lands of Yuravichi were set out on sale representatives of peasants went to landowner Soltan. They argued for a long time because they had little money. It seemed they came to an agreement to buy 1000 dessiatinas (measure of land = 10,900 sq. metres or 2.7 acres) for less than 40 rubles per one. They also bought 3 fields, market gardens near Vidolichi , the forest near Litvin and the pasture. One unsophisticated peasant who was pointing the chairs asked the landowner if he could take them. The landowner turned red and told them to get away. The peasants bended down and jumped out of the place.
  • 1874: Ivan Bakunenok, a rich farmer from Radul, purchased Soltan's estate for 20 rubles per dessiatina. Peasants face hardships in pasturing cattle and using fields.
  • 1875: Public college for women.

1880s

  • Start of pogroms against Jews. Russia viewed Jewish merchants and manufacturers as “exploiters”. Vladimir Rapoport, Minsk provincial committee member declares “manufacturers and merchants in civilized countries were considered a highly useful segment of society, not exploiters”. 5) 6)
  • Start of restrictions on where Jews could live: Jews forced to move from villages into towns as a way to concentrate population. Result was impoverishment because towns would have too many craftsmen or merchants (while villages had too few).

1890s

  • By 1897 this grew to 1,287, representing over 80% of all Yurevichi residents7)
  • According to the 1897 population census the population of the town was 1,320 and there were 201 homesteads, the church, a chapel, 2 prayer schools, 40 stores, 4 leather workshops, 2 taverns. The village was inhabited by 600 people and there were 108 homesteads, a chapel, 2 public schools, a postal-telegraph office, a pharmacy, a bread store, 2 wind mills, a horse mill and a tavern. A farm of the same name was located between the town and the village.
  • The old resident of Yuravichi A.I.Kozlovsky describes the prerevolutionary town in the book “Pamyt. Kalinkovicheskiy rayon” : Yuravichi was different at that times. Things were humming and there were more people. You could see a lot of stores, mills, workshops. Potters, blacksmiths worked here. In the end of the ditch which was popularly called “Na Libedi” behind Kavalchykov there was a windmill. Its owner was Fedor Lucskevich. The other windmill’s owner was Olka Karchava. A horse mill’s owners were Esel Katcsen and his son Girsh. Three blind horses turned millstones. They made cereals, fine-ground and coarse-ground flour and vegetable oil. The vegetable oil was produced with a special roller to get oilcake. There were three kinds of cereals and barley was grinded to white flour. Many people gathered near the windmill so a kind of a house was built there for those who were waiting in line. The house of Vladimir Ivanenko is located at that place now.

1900s

  • 1905: Russo-Japanese War. Jews blamed for supporting the Japanese.
  • Pogroms against Jews proceed under tacit approval of Nicholas II.
  • October 1907 strike. Forces Nicholas II to issue “manifesto of October 17, 1905”. offers several freedoms to the population, including Jews. Encouraged even greater protests. Jews participated in demonstrations against monarchy. Pro-monarchy supporters viewed Jewish participation as a Jewish victory against the tsars and organized pogroms.

1910 -- 1917

Economy

  • grain production
  • alcohol (wine and pure alcohol) factories based from grain production (see Business directory listing workers)
history/imperial_russia.txt · Last modified: 2013/11/11 20:59 by Jon Jaroker